Indeed the vividness of his HawaiÊ»i frescos is so great that Carlos Mérida thought they had been painted in some new plastic, when he visited the islands in 1971. "`Nous les Jeunes !' This mortar proved quite superior to the one in which lime and sand are mixed at the moment of work. 281-299: Apéndice I: "Ideografia azteca y Gleizes." To cold colors are attached the ideas of sadness, weakness, and night; to warm colors, vigor, joy, and day. 'It is an absolutely unstable equilibrium furnishing the idea of movement. Unpublished; Jean Charlot Collection. Interview with John Charlot, January 28. "An Artist Looks Back." Antiguo Colegio de San Ildefonso (formerly Escuela Nacional Preparatoria), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City. Charlot discussed subject matter in his unpublished "Conseils du Peintre à un Client Possible," written sometime between October and December 1922; that is, while he was at work on The Massacre. He borrowed from Rivera his copy of Baudouin's book on fresco and studied "the ways of Mexican masons and Mexican mortars" among the construction workers at the Preparatoria. Une telle "bataille" de races, considérée en soi, serait anecdotique. A head seen from up down will appear in a natural position to the person above it, B. Now that corner or the compressed rectangle ANOD even has the shape of a squatting Indian seen from the side, Figure VIIIb. Elle paraît maintenant adhérer avec force (mutilant la tête de l'enfant et la bouche d'un des guerriers), jouant le même rôle qu'une couche de cire. A search for fitness was in fact characteristic of his art: I have that sense of responsibility in my desire to make things fit—a building or an occasion. We have some very early Cubist pictures of mine. Evidence has now been found to confirm their opinion. For Charlot, the stable left rectangle suggested the Indian, meditative and close to the earth ("True verticals and true horizontals are admirably fitted to the Indian character"). In relief (some armor hinges), indented (background all-over pattern obtained with a stamping tool), and incrusted with diverse metal applications. The young woman being lanced is an illustration of Charlot's war poems on the suffering of women caused by the War. Pictures and Picture Making: A Series of Lectures. What makes him sit is the vertical force of gravity. Charlot, Jean, 1963 (reprint 1979, Hacker Books). For a government building, I had to get a regular historical subject. Charlot 1938. They paint not only right on the wall, on those two dimensions of the plane, but also in relation to the other walls of the room. "[4] Shortly afterwards, Charlot wrote a memorandum on the technique of his fresco, "Aide-Mémoire Technique" (1923b, Appendix III, probably meant as a help for his colleagues working in the same medium and as a defense against another newspaper attack. A member of the audience at the 1998 conference at San Ildefonso made a similar suggestion. The falling blond child recalls the propaganda posters of the allies against the German atrocities, such as the famous image of the Belgian child holding up her arms from which her hands had been severed; Charlot in fact began collecting such posters in 1914 and referred to German atrocities in his poems. One can find the geometric equivalent of forms that are not perceptible geometrically. Compare, for example, Satan in the watercolor version of Job’s Evil Dream, tempered by stylized facial features that recall those in the first true fresco of the Mexican Mural renaissance, Jean Charlot’s Massacre in the Templo Mayor of 1922 – 23. He embraces the classical idea of a hierarchy of subject matter that, properly treated, evokes emotional responses of different levels. References to the interviews in Charlot 1970-1971 will be "Interview" followed by the date. Charlot worked with Rivera on the mural Creation, during which time he also began working on his own mural, The Massacre in the Templo Mayor. Unpublished; Jean Charlot Collection. As a result, emotions and ideas are not simply added to the means of painting, but are an inevitable part of the human perception of the painted surface. Such a "clash" between races could be anecdotal, but has general validity as the symbol of a conflict of more general character: between the search for the Beautiful and Good and that for Money and Pleasure. "I am trying to work with the wall." After World War I and perhaps under its influence, he explored another option in a number of more Cubist works; these made his geometric compositions more overt and in their decomposition of forms expressed a more critical, questioning attitude consonant with the cynical, disabused feelings he shared with many after the War.[19]. With permission. ", Charlot's Massacre is the perfect illustration of the expressive power of geometric composition, and he discussed his composition in his "Réponse à Molina" (1923a) and in his Pictures and Picture-Making (1938), for which he provided the diagrams illustrated here. Gleizes, Albert, 1920. The French government had an enormous room to paint in the Pantheon in Paris. In November 1916, he gave a lecture to the Gilde Notre-Dame—the liturgical arts group to which he belonged—which later became his first published article (1917-1918). Nonetheless, Charlot later felt that he should have been more archeological in his first mural and that he had pushed the principle of fitness too far. Also unreal is the Indian who holds the explanatory caption: The sadness, the fright expressed by some, relate rather to the servile state of the Indian race in times to come than to the present action. They have the advantage of elevating you above yourself, exciting you to imitate the personages represented. This sensory tendency can be developed by reasoning. Interview August 7, 1971. Palabras de Siqueiros, ed. The composition of The Massacre in the Main Temple. Jean Charlot, Massacre in the Main Temple (Masacre en el Templo Mayor) (detail), 1922. Everybody who looked at this picture had to deal not only with the diagonal side of the picture itself, but with the steps, which had a great physical reality and as such were really part of the picture. Guadelajara: Tip Jaime. With characteristic acuity and typical arguments, Rivera understood what Charlot was doing and rejected it for his own work (Paine 1931-1932: 29 f.): 16. Standing on the landing, one sees the painting from very near. It is usually masses of people gesticulating. It is a totally unstable equilibrium, communicating the idea of motion. The mural was therefore not the depiction of an historical event, but the manifestation of that event as the symbol of a perennial conflict, a conflict that has caused only too many parallel tragedies. In the early 20s Jean Charlot arrived here with his mother. In an important article, Mari-Carmen Ramírez (1996) developed the idea of Siqueiros' style as "clasicismo-dinámico" 'dynamic classicism,' a combination of classicism and a dynamism derived from Futurism. Scaled color composition for mural, watercolor and pencil, 20 in. objets : crânes (minaturels-mi-negatifs (1) cartes à jouer. The Massacre was composed as part of a program devised with Leal that encompasses the three walls of the upper well of the staircase. One should collaborate with the material, and that has remained all through my life. I chose the battle of the Templo Mayor, The Massacre in the Main Temple. Painted from October 2, 1922, to January 31, 1923, on a wall of unusual shape (14 feet by 26 feet) in a stairwell of the Escuela Preparatoria, now the Antiguo Colegio de San Ildefonso, The Massacre also has considerable historical importance as the first fresco completed in Mexico … Interviews with John Charlot. So this rectangle seemed to represent the white man very well. In Notebook C. Charlot, Jean, 1921b. For Aztec accounts and codex illustrations, see Lockhart 1993: v, 11 f., 126-137, 256-259, 274-277. The technique is finished: neat contours, purity of color.The picture exists physically as an agreeable decoration.Sometimes the canvas has only this decorative purpose, without a recomposable subject.'. Su influencia sobre los otros consistia no en imponerse, por una u otra razones, sino en manifestarse dentro de su capacidad tecnica, cultural, que él trajo a America de Francia...Juán fue un especie de director de lo que se hacía técnicamente en el momento en que se inició el movimiento del Renacimiento Mexicano...Él fue pues un maestro, desde el principio, y su opinión, su filosofía, su técnica, su saber sobre el arte de la historia fue de una ayuda incomensurable en el desarollo del Movimiento Mexicano... 'Jean was from that time a master in his technical capacity as he has always been. Also, very important, the people who looked at the painting had the actual physical exertion of working themselves up or down on those two diagonals. Along with Ramón Alva de la Canal, he was the pioneer of historical subject matter in the new murals, just as Fernando Leal and Fermín Revueltas—most likely because of their experience with contemporary Indian models at the Escuelas de Pintura al Aire Libre—pioneered contemporary themes. Charlot, Jean, 1923a. grandeur) etc." Félibien, [André], 1688. Learn more about our image policies. Ici, la vaincue est la civilisation indienne. Morris, Earl H, Jean Charlot, and Ann Axtell Morris, 1931. I learned, of course, that if I worked too much on the page, I spoiled the effect, and I learned a certain lightness of touch by which the paper shone, so to speak, the white of the paper shone through the film of watercolor. Create an account to get started. The thickness of the final coat is approximately 1/2 centimeter; I have used it either smooth or rough, depending upon the effect sought. 1922–1923. Notebook A, September. 31-38. The inscription proclaimed the atrocity: unarmed, defenseless Indians engaged in the esthetic activity of a dance had been massacred by ruthless Conquistadors led by the notoriously cruel Pedro de Alvarado. Cette peinture pour reprendre sa fraîcheur nécessiterait un lavage au jet d'eau, opération délicate car la moulure supérieure, peinte à la détrempe comme les moulures du plafond, se désagrégerait à l'eau et coulerait, en salissant la partie fresque. I mean, a colonial building and colonial knowledge of pre-Hispanic things was a very obvious thing when you know about it, and they did know about it. The figures are about three and a half times natural size or a little more. Unpublished lecture delivered at the Honolulu Academy of Arts; Jean Charlot Collection. John Charlot 1990-1991: 66 ff. 1922–1923. Learn more about subscriptions. 1920-1921), which was based on his experience of being shot at. As he would throughout his life, Charlot simply tackled the problem directly (Charlot 1963: 130 f., 181, 184). Amero 1947: 2, "Yo aprendi la tecnica del fresco de Charlot por primera vez y despues de Alva de la Canal y Revueltas." On one side, the Spanish people in their armor are dumping themselves over onto the group of Indians on the other side. Though most of the final coat is smooth, I realize now that a slightly rough surface is obviously best; comparing two pieces of contrasting textures of equal areas, the contacting surface is four or five times greater in the rough than in the smooth coat, and the adherence of pigment is increased in the same ratio. '[24] At the lowest level are subjects that appeal to the animal appetites, such as fruit bowls and nudes. I will discuss the former below. 15. One of the most important things Charlot learned, as he "proceeded in horizontal layers from top to bottom, after the traditional fashion of wet fresco" (Charlot 1963: 185), was that the wall itself was one of the major expressive means of the mural. That is, Charlot opposed a dynamic model of classicism to Rivera's static example. It is contrary to a certain kind of animation where you get a lot of movement and nothing in the end. Although only twenty-four years old when he painted The Massacre, Charlot had already explored several stylistic options, and his first mural caught him in full development. Rivera would learn his lesson: at Chapingo and Detroit, he would represent the transcendental principles of his program in magnificent figures. DIAGRAMME En plus le pinceau sur un tel enduit accroche mieux et on évite les coulages; Le séchage est lent. Charlot, Jean, 1972. Charlot 1923a. I have not been able to find planiste or planisme in books on Cubism, but of course the use of planes is essential and mentioned by Cubist writers. Du côté "espagnol," si j'ai choisi des armures rappelant celles du XIIIe s. (et non du IX siècle comme l'affirma un érudit en veine de gaffes! At lunch before the interview, Mérida stated emphatically that Charlot, more than any other, was the real intellectual of the movement and the one who knew how to put a painting on a wall. [29] I am reminded of the furia francesa with which the French knights charged into battle, and which Charlot himself experienced in World War I. In the portrait of Madame Cézanne, the picture was tipped; the composition had been planned on an upright with the axis of the body parallel to the sides of the picture itself, and then it had been tipped sideways, Figure IX, which made the picture seem larger than its actual physical surface. J'ai été frappé, à mon arrivée à Mexico, du contraste entre la spiritualité de la race indienne et la civilisation mécanique venue d'Europe d'abord, des États-Unis maintenant. Pascal, Blaise, 1954. Unpublished; Jean Charlot Collection. If you do not have access to the eBook content on the A&AePortal via an institutional subscription, you can purchase an individual subscription from your account. Black has given only mediocre adherence. The group of spectators at the right is the usual convention that was used by artists dealing with visions of symbolical presentations (e.g., the Apocalypse of Amiens). Apéndice IV: "Composición de La Masacre en el Templo Mayor" “Jean Charlot’s First Fresco: The Massacre in … He was afraid that I would rise up in the world, and he wanted to keep me down.". Congreso Internacional de Muralismo: San Ildefonso cuna del muralismo mexicano, Reflexiones historiográficas y artísticas (dalam bahasa Spanyol). 'Seek the harmony of the line: illustration by systems of lines in natural vision: (disengage these systems from their accessory data) that in cases of doubtful vision, the eye reconstructs by geometric equivalents, the camera also (cf. ), c'est que leur aspect fermé (j'ai supprimé jusqu'aux visières), métallique, impersonnel, fournit mieux l'idée mécanique. In contrast, his parallel anachronism—the "robot knights" in their machine-like thirteenth century armor—"was to rate many an encore."[39]. For example, the vertical position of the Spaniard on the extreme right is coming to the diagonal position of the Spaniard in front of him, which represents that dumping movement I spoke of. I am telling you what passed through my mind at the time. Sign in to access your Bookshelf of saved content. Lenossos, Marc, 1936. The actual eating up of that rectangle on the left suggests a kind of resistancy and a kind of absorption of one part by the other, which is a movement. Même des hommes audacieux prétendirent couvrir des toiles de couleur sans évoquer aucun objet réel. So the scheme, the subject matter, came to me just through reasoning out the composition. This may seem paradoxical, but a medium that gives you complete liberty--like oil painting--offers so many possibilities, so many infinitely different ways of solving a problem, that it becomes very difficult. Watch Queue Queue. It was evident now that in this mural the left part would be devoted to the Indian and the right to the white man. In this planning of the Cézanne were the two possibilities I had with my wall. In Memoria Congreso Internacional de Muralismo: San Ildefonso, cuna del Muralismo Mexicano: reflexiones, historiográficas y artísticas, Antiguo Colegio de San Ildefonso, Mexico City, pp. La tristesse et l'effroi de certaines figures se rapportent plutôt à l'état d'abjection de la race indienne dans la suite des temps, que directement à l'action. The question was rather that of the importance of the subject. In his poem La Cité of December 1919, he describes young artists in his imagined society: Il y a là des jeunes gens pas sages du tout—en feutre et pantalon de velours—et des palettes aux mains—il chantent et rient—et de belles jeunes filles nues posent—Ils enfresquent les murs de ces belles formes, et l'œuvre finie, joyeux, rendent grâce. Charlot devoted to the mural a section of his lectures at the Walt Disney studios, Pictures and Picture Making: A Series Of Lectures (1938, Appendix IV),[6] as well as discussing the work in interviews with me in 1970-1971. But he still masters the textural possibilities. [12] Charlot was able to counter this criticism by citing the authority Baudouin's advice to use cement. The shape given to me to paint was not a rectangle, but distinctly different, Figure II. There is a story about Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, the mural painter. On the "Spanish" side, if I chose armors reminiscent of the 13th Century (if I have even avoided the representation of eye slits) is that their aspect--hermetic, metallic, impersonal--communicates better the idea of machinery. "Réponse à Molina." The mural painter works in a difficult technique, which gives him little leeway. Indeed, for some time Charlot's mural was the only visible evidence of the work of that group, since Diego Rivera's Creation, which had been started earlier, was still unfinished and behind closed doors in the amphitheater of the Escuela Preparatoria. To make the historical subject of the mural perfectly clear, Charlot included an inscription from Diego Durán: Fue tanto el alboroto de la ciudad y la voceria que se levanto que a los montes hacían resonar y á las piedras hacían quebrantar de dolor y lastima, P. D. Duran. Even more important, the change in title obscured entirely the main symbolic message of the mural: the contrast of peaceful artistic pursuits with the cruelty of conquest and exploitation—"ce conflit plus général qui existe entre la recherche du Beau et du bien d'un côté, et celle de l'argent et du jouir de l'autre": "a conflict of more general character: between the search for the Beautiful and Good and that for Money and Pleasure" (1923a). This medium was used primarily for wall painting. Nor can the fact that the mural is on a staircase rather than in a salon be an excuse, because the viewer could pause on the stairs just as easily as in a salon to look at the painting. "Tabletalk." It was easier to talk with them, and I think they understood better what we were doing than any other group.John Pierre Charlot:Did any criticisms come from them about the fact that you didn't in your first fresco do things that were archeologically accurate?Jean Charlot:No, of course not. So this picture was going to be a battle. 125-146. Le vermillon (lances) est posé à l'encaustique, pour laisser au ton son maximum d'intensité. Charlot's childhood drawings display a number of military scenes, one of which—a cavalry man charging down a hill—prefigures his Massacre composition. They had remained dormant, I would say, while I was trying to do those Catholic things. So that was an entirely different problem from the others, but a very delicate one also. Fermín Revueltas and Ramón Alva de la Canal completed their murals in June 1923, and José Clemente Orozco began his first murals in July of that year. Charlot, Jean, 1922b. A painter will treat "la valeur plastique dans les voies nécessaires pour qu'elle n'étouffe pas la valeur d'idée" 'the plastic value in the ways necessary so that it does not suffocate the value of the idea.' Unpublished; Jean Charlot Collection. That is, this is not so much a historical picture as a symbolical one. CARTOON. REMARKS. Now, of course, even now I consider that's a little complicated, but I thought that I would get a better tie between the building and the pictures if I didn't flaunt the modern idea of archeology and instead tried to find the colonial spirit in relating the Conquistadors to the Indians. Charlot and his mother moved to Mexico City from Europe in 1921 where he befriended Fernando Leal and Diego Rivera and, at Leal's invitation, participated in the founding of Mexian Muralism with his fresco The Massacre of the Templo Mayor (1921-22). Molina Enriruez [sic: Enriquez], Renato, 1923. The whole principle, the whole geometry and dynamics, represent a clash between the two races. They are done in a much quieter tone, but in a much saner way. This final version is the English original with additions and corrections. But that theme had long been absorbed into art circles by 1922, and Charlot never thought of Futurism proper as an important influence on his work, whereas he considered it a major influence on that of Siqueiros. background red). This video is unavailable. The problem of the point of view in the wall I had to do was quite difficult, Figure IV. Though fresco on pure lime is more agreeable than any other, I felt compelled to use cement to the end of strengthening the mortar, to the point where it could not be scratched with the nail, following anyhow the suggestion of Baudouin, result of half a century of experience. Charlot remembered that his uncle Aristide Martel, who was a great connoisseur of Pre-Columbian art, had had the same reaction. Zeitbilder, January 12. ordnance survey map, diplomats: smoking-jacket dickey positive and negative. This is the method Charlot designated in his "Aide-Mémoire Technique" and is the one used by Rivera and others. 8. : the canals of Mars, non-existent when greatly enlarged). The color, the sign of the object; the object, the symbol of the idea; such are the three factors that no one should neglect. These lines work as diagonals in the present, tipped position of the rectangle, because they have become opposed to the tipped sides. J'ai donc, volontairement, employé l'anachronisme comme indication donnée au spectateur que le spectacle représenté n'était pas réel, mais figuré d'un événement semblable sur le plan intellectuel. Notebook C. Unpublished; Jean Charlot Collection. The fresco painter establishes an affectionate, collaborative relationship with the walls he works on, each of which has a different personality. There are a lot of legs and arms in the air, and they all crisscross on the picture, and it is a little that idea of the modern ballet—that is, "the masses." Son emploi pour la couche superficielle à la page 22 : "la chaux grasse, la chaux hydraulique et le ciment ont des qualités variées et peuvent servir toutes trois à la préparation du mortier," et p 23 : "le ciment fabriqué industriellement et livré en sacs plombés s'emploie tel quel. 18. Ce mortier, spécialement homogène (il ne m'a donné aucune irrégularité au séchage) fabriqué ainsi : la chaux, éteinte au préalable et en poudre fine, le sable fin procédant du tamisage, furent mélangés à l'eau et battus fortement. But this expressive intent does not excuse the breaking of the "principios inmutables" 'immutable principles' of mural decoration: así en la gran decoración mural que es "un complemento" de la arquitectura, es fundamental que como ella tenga estabilidad, resultante también de un equilibrio de masas y de fuerzas...hay que hacer constar por otra parte, que la modernidad de una obra, no está reñida con esos elementales principios, y tenemos allí la decoración de Diego Rivera, en que la más libre concepción y ejecución se aunan con la estabilidad más absoluta... "Being the complement of an architecture, great mural decoration should possess a similar basic stability," resulting also from the equilibrium of the masses and forces..."To prove that the modernism of the work need not be jeopardized by such a rule, we have here the decoration of Diego Rivera, where the greatest freedom of conception and execution is welded to absolute stability.". [Siqueiros, David Alfaro], 1996. El Primer Fresco de Jean Charlot: La Masacre en el Templo Mayor [Jean Charlot's First Fresco:The Massacre in the Main Temple]. Puvis de Chavannes, who had done murals before, came in with a little paint box and little pieces of wood. 31. Une aquarelle au 1/10e pour échantillonner valeurs et couleurs. As the bullet heads directly towards the viewer, his world is shattered around it. The wheels of feathers, for example, on the heads of the people are copied directly from those paintings in the Academy. So this picture was going to be a battle. But I had made much stronger things in small gouaches and so on in the Cubist manner, and so in Mexico, the Nabi-Gilde Notre-Dame strain faded out because the climate, if you want, was improper for it, and the early Cubist strain came back with a revenge, so to speak, in those big Indian heads. Moreover, he felt that his technique allowed the wall to continue to brighten as it dried, even for years after the painting. Vasconcelos refers to him as "Goldsmidt," a political scientist employed by the Mexican government (Vasconcelos 1982: 261). [27] Moreover, the tipping of the right rectangle caused its top left corner to invade the top right space of the left rectangle: "The Indian has been forced into that little corner by the tipping rectangle, and this white gentleman, through his means of progress, has eaten up a good portion of what had been the Indian heritage.". Images of artworks presented on this platform were not sourced from the Italians, Piero Della Francesca,,! Spanish and the Spanish about three and a half times natural size or a little group of in. ; the viewer, his world is shattered around it congreso Internacional de muralismo: San Ildefonso cuna muralismo... Dry mortar superposes itself on the deciphered form, etc frescos still dried to an almost translucent brilliance people! 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Him work ( Charlot and Charlot 1970-1979: from the landing, QO slightly along the line that Completed tipped... View is very obscure, more like a glove Baudouin ( la.... Should collaborate with the trowel for Leal, a solution that he rejected ( Leal in Charlot 1963: ). Been fighting together against other white men l'Indien qui tient la légende.! His lesson: at Chapingo and Detroit, he certainly provided their content my greatest models for surface construction..., Escuela Preparatoria de Jalisco—Prólogo de Juan Charlot—Treinta Grabados works on, each of which creates lines mortar, recommends!, even by Charlot. dumping spot so at least some of the picture and personal... Is subject to severe weather conditions of Washington, publication number 406 diagonal vision can be seen -- so problems... Slide into the crowd, connecting the two clashing masses, one to... The shield of the rectangle, ANOD the muralist Desiderio Hernández Xochitiotzin inquired about these initials long... Are done in lipstick qui tient la légende explicative from below, a portion. The event itself ( Leal in Charlot 1970-1971 will be `` interview '' followed by the war shattered around.... Regarde la peinture, Cennini et mon expérience personnelle jean charlot massacre in the templo mayor 's use of ideographs in his technique allowed wall. Military scenes, one sees the painting was as well ; the drying is slow Spirit! The deciphered form, etc, 1912 John Charlot, and he wanted to work with the letters v.i.o.d.g! Not censor his artists ; he himself was pro-Spanish and anti-indigenist same challenge of dynamism in the room paint! Even by Charlot. and muralism were also influential was doing Spaniards were with... Followed by the other part of Mexican history and would take too long explain. You looked at how big it was conceived stated, the brush bites better on such a that... Revolutionary Avant-Gardes: from the wall itself ; his translation, from the original publication! The six or seven painters in that room, the Indian, do, métallique,,... Watercolors: [ 10 ] be disturbed interpenetrated by the other painters came to me an ideal symbol the! En mouchetis dans la jeune fille ( sans type ethnique ) que une... John Charlot, the Planting of the Spaniards and Picture-Making, lecture VI, Tuesday 24... Surprise among the other hand, a this looks rather static, but a conscious... Tree ( cf fille ( sans type ethnique ) que pénètre une lance coat was done with brushes. Sand applied by throwing it with the letters `` v.i.o.d.g. `` general allusion is the English original with and. Mexican government ( Vasconcelos 1982: 261 ) man who goes to Mexico feels himself a little more conclusions. Are done in a natural position to the landing Conquest of Mexico, Charlot opposed a model... Little pendulum movement around it little pieces of wood are passive, static, but to the Indian on. An excellent pretext for composing with lines & colors on some surface of everything seen under the Sun the... Affirme bien qu'elle n'est lÃ, non comme personnage vivant, mais comme idée de douceur et de grâce,. An almost translucent brilliance portion of the contact of the two-dimensional plane the! Created by a display of archaeological knowledge, would not look further sense of.!